Containers vs Virtual Machines (VMs): What’s the Difference?

Containers vs Virtual Machines

The tools, frameworks, and technologies used in modern software development make up a complex ecosystem that is always changing. Containers and virtual machines (VMs) are two of the most commonly utilized technologies in this area because they give developers effective means of creating and deploying applications. Here we will discuss about Containers vs Virtual machines.

Making decisions regarding which of these two technologies (Containers and VMs) to use in particular contexts requires an understanding of the contrasts between the two technologies. We will go into the specifics of containers and virtual machines, including their deployment choices, resource utilization, and architecture.

A thorough understanding of these technologies is crucial for staying ahead in the quickly changing software development market, regardless of your level of experience.

What do you understand by Containers?

Applications can execute in a safe, isolated environment thanks to containers, which are small, portable virtualized environments. Operating system (OS) level virtualization is the foundation of containers, which are created to package an application with all of its dependencies and libraries into a single, self-contained entity. Regardless of the underlying hardware or software, the application functions consistently across many computing environments.

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Simply put, containers are virtual boxes that contain all the components necessary for a program to execute. The box is separate from the rest of the computer and is compatible with moving from one computer to another.

What are the benefits of Containers?

In comparison to traditional virtual machines containers offer several benefits:

  • Efficiency: Since containers use fewer resources than virtual machines, which allows greater efficiency and faster application deployment.
  • Scalability: Depending upon the requirements you raise, it is easy to scale the container up or down. This makes it an ideal device for high-traffic applications.
  • Portability: Containers are known to be highly portable since they can be operated on any operating system. Moreover, they can be easily moved between computing environments.
  • Robust technology: A hosted public repository of pre-built containers, like messaging or database systems, is a feature offered by the majority of container runtime systems. These repositories offer a strong ecosystem of pre-built software components that can be quickly downloaded and executed, saving time for development teams.

What do you understand about Virtual Machines or VMs?

VM which also stands for a Virtual Machine signifies a computer system that runs operating systems and applications just like a physical computer. A Virtual Machine is usually created using a software that creates an abstract layer between the hardware and the Operating system. This allows multiple virtual Machines to run on a single physical Machine.

If we put it in simple terms, A Virtual Machine is similar to a computer within a computer. It runs its own Operating system and applications. However, it shares the physical resources of the host machine with other virtual machines.

What are the benefits of using Virtual Machines?

  • Isolation: Virtual Machine provides isolation which results in security and efficiency.
  • Compatibility: Considering the fact Virtual Machine runs multiple servers and applications it has a wide range for compatibility.
  • Hardware: In order to run your Virtual Machines on a physical server, you can have the benefit of hardware abstraction.

What is the Difference Between Containers and Virtual Machines (VMs)?

Full Isolation Security

Virtual machines, also known as VMs, operate independently as a fully independent system, making them impervious to any vulnerabilities or interference from other VMs on a shared host.

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Contrarily, containers share the host operating system with other containers even though they provide some amount of isolation. The other containers on the same host may be affected if one container is compromised. The introduction of technologies like kernel namespaces and groups, which offer greater isolation and security, has helped container technology advance over time.

Collaborative Development

When it comes to interactive development, virtual machines are more dynamic and evolved. Once the fundamental hardware definition has been established, a virtual machine resembles a manual-installed computer with minimal hardware.

Snapshots of virtual machines are used to record the configuration as it is right now. They are either spun up to produce more virtual machines with the same configuration or restored to that point.

Containers, on the other hand, are intended to be compact and immutable, with their configuration and dependencies predetermined. Containers now outperform virtual machines in speed and efficiency, but their flexibility for interactive development is constrained.

Usage of Resources

Since each virtual machine runs a full copy of the operating system, they demand more memory, CPU, and storage than containers do.

In contrast, containers have smaller resource footprints since they share the host operating system and only run the necessary dependencies and libraries.

But because virtual machines offer complete isolation, they can run programs from several operating systems or build numerous isolated environments on a single host. On the other hand, executing lightweight apps that have comparable operating system needs is better suited for containers.


The kernel is shared by all the containers and is incorporated into the host operating system. Containers execute single programs or micro services effectively; they have a small footprint, a quick startup time, and are lightweight and portable. They therefore work well with cloud-native designs.

On the other hand, virtual machines execute a comprehensive operating system stack and imitate an entire physical environment. Each virtual machine has its own kernel, indicating that numerous virtual machines with various operating systems can run on the same physical host. On the same hardware, virtual machines are frequently utilized to run various operating systems or outdated programs.


The deployment models used by containers and virtual machines are also different. Each container performs a distinct function since containers are made to be deployed as micro services in a distributed architecture. Because of this, containers are perfect for contemporary cloud-native apps that need to be incredibly scalable and resilient.

Contrarily, monolithic applications that need a whole operating system and a certain set of hardware are often deployed using virtual machines. On-premises systems frequently use virtual machines to build isolated environments for testing, development, and production.

Comparison: Containers vs Virtual Machines

Factors & FeaturesContainersVirtual Machines
Operating System You can share the host operating system. With this you can run  a Guest operating system.
Usage of ResourceLightweight with efficient features Usually requires more resources than containers. 
Deployment Quite simple to deploy and scale the services. You can spin it up or down according to your requirements. Quite difficult to deploy and scale. Takes longer time to spin up or down. 
Isolation Considering it is less isolated, it can share the same kernel as the Host OS. Fully isolated from other operating systems or Virtual Machines. 
SecurityThere is less isolation which increases potential security risks. Containers are just secure at underlying hosts. More secure because of the fully isolation feature. Security risks are located within the Virtual Machine and do not affect the host. 
Resource Sharing Allows you to share system resources with other containers on the same host. Allows you to share resources however it is not as easy as it is in containers. 
PerformanceWith Lightweight nature it has a fast performance.A little slower than containers because of virtualization overhead. 
Use Cases Organizations where rapid deployment and scalability is necessary. Systems which require full isolation or a specific operating system. 

Choosing Between Containers vs Virtual Machines

When choosing between Containers or Virtual Machines, it is very important to consider some essential factors before hand:

  1. Application Required: The particular requirements of your application should be taken into account initially. If your application requires a full operating system, precise hardware specifications, or compatibility with a wide range of operating systems, virtual machines can be a better option. Containers can be a preferable option if your program comprises small micro services that can share an operating system.
  2. Scalability & Effectiveness: Containers might be a better option if you need to deploy your application in a highly scalable and resilient way. The deployment of containers as micro services makes it simple to scale up and down as needed. High availability and resilience are also guaranteed since if one container in the cluster fails, the remaining containers in the cluster can take up the task.
  3. Secure network with Isolation: If security and isolation are essential for your application, virtual machines can be a better option. It is challenging for an attacker to access other virtual machines running on the same host due to the complete isolation that virtual machines provide from the underlying host operating system. However, because containers share the host operating system, there may be a security risk.
  4. Utilization of Resources: Virtual machines are heavier and less effective than containers, which makes containers the best choice for executing several apps on a single host. In contrast, since virtual machines execute a complete copy of the operating system, they require more resources than containers. Containers might be a better option if you need to run numerous apps on a single host and want to maximize resource usage.


Even though both the software are somehow doing the same work, they manage and initiate it differently. The benefits and uses are different and are to be used in different circumstances under different requirements. As per your needs you can do your research and choose between Containers vs Virtual Machines.

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